Pollution may increase virus transmissibility making people more vulnerable to Covid-19, say experts
NEW DELHI: Air pollution may increase transmissibility of the novel coronavirus making people more vulnerable to the disease and aggravating the Covid-19 situation, experts have said, while warning that those who have had the infection in the past may also have to face new challenges.
With winters approaching and easing of the coronavirus-induced lockdown, Delhi-NCR is bracing for months of poor air quality. The national capital’s air quality was in the ‘poor’ category on Sunday morning.
According to doctors, respiratory illnesses like viral influenza increase with a spike in pollution levels as poor air quality leads to inflammation in the lungs making it more vulnerable for the virus to penetrate.
“This year, we have Covid-19. Like the common cold, the transmission of this virus is expected to increase with a rise in pollution levels. We may see a further surge in cases.
“It would be a taxing time for testing centres as they have to cater to people with coronavirus and also non-Covid patients with similar symptoms,” Dr Neeraj Nischal, an associate professor in the Department of Medicine at AIIMS, told PTI. Experts feel the worst-affected would be people in the lower socioeconomic class with no access to masks and also vulnerable to additional risk factors such as chulla smoke.
“Transmission apart, the presentation of Covid-19 like other viral respiratory illnesses will be more severe in high-pollution areas. This will burden hospitals as more patients become symptomatic, requiring admission,” Dr Nischal said. According to Dr Neeraj Gupta, a professor in the Department of Pulmonary, Critical care and Sleep medicine at Safdarjung Hospital, mortality has been linked with population density, the proximity of people and heavily industrialized or urbanised areas which have higher pollution levels.
These factors are likely to become more effective during the festive season and winters, particularly in north India where stubble burning is common and this affects air quality severely, he said.
“Italy showed a possible link between PM 2.5 concentration and excess mortality to the extent that one unit increase is associated with a 9 per cent increase in Covid-19 mortality,” Dr Gupta said, adding pollution can also assist in the transmission of the novel coronavirus.
During smog, particulate matters remain suspended in the air near the earth‘s surface for a longer period making it conducive for the transmission of the virus, he elaborated.
Dr Suranjit Chatterjee, senior consultant of Internal Medicine at Apollo Hospitals, said, “We really don’t know how this virus is going to behave. But, we need to prepare ourselves for the worst, as pollution level increases and with winter setting in. It will be a dangerous combination.”
He cautioned that people with respiratory illness, like asthma and bronchitis, were at much higher risk of contracting coronavirus infection.
“For people who have tested positive for Covid-19, it is going to be a double whammy, with pollution making things worse,” he told PTI.
Doctors warn that even those who have had Covid-19 in the past are not out of the woods.
“Post-Covid fibrosis and immunoparalysis make their lungs more susceptible to super-added bacterial pneumonia and other viral respiratory illnesses. We urge everyone to get inoculated with the influenza vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine to prevent additional infections in these times,” Dr Nischal stressed.
According to Dr Gupta, with the cohort of survivors of Covid-19 increasing, a significant number is noted to be symptomatic — 43 per cent with respiratory complaints– even after two months.
These individuals are particularly vulnerable to air pollution, which is known to cause chronic airway irritation and inflammation, affects mucus clearing, impairs immunity and acutely precipitates airway disorders like asthma, COPD, lung fibrosis or even cancer-related conditions.
Dr Vivek Nangia, principal director and head of pulmonology, Max Super Speciality Hospital in Delhi’s Saket said that for individuals belonging to the high-risk groups who are at extremes of ages and suffering from chronic disease are advised to stay indoors or at least restrict their movement to bare essential activities outdoors.
“While outdoors, wear a mask at all times and stay away from firecrackers during Diwali. Keep inhaler handy and consult a doctor at the earliest. Even for the others, it is strongly recommended that they minimize their outdoor activities and wear a mask at all time,” he said.
“The number of cases will go up. There is a study which has been published by Harvard Medical School, USA, where they have shown that with every 1 micron per metre rise in PM 2.5 particles, there’s an 8 per cent increase in the mortality,” he said.
Dr Gupta said, “Indeed, a tough time for post-Covid patients is in store.”
India calls for complete ceasing of support to terrorist forces in Middle East
UNITED NATIONS: India has called on all concerned parties to completely stop supporting terrorist forces, like the ISIS, while urging all stakeholders in the Middle East to work constructively for peace, stability and development.
India underscored that it has invested considerably in the peace and stability of the region by deploying its personnel as part of UN peacekeeping forces, through humanitarian assistance, development cooperation, capacity building, and will continue contributing towards peace-building in the Middle East.
“India calls on concerned parties to completely stop support to terrorist forces, like ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant) and others. India also urges all parties in the region to work constructively and in good faith to promote peace, stability and development for the benefit of all people in the Middle East,” India said in a written statement on Monday on the Security Council’s open debate on ‘The Situation in the Middle East’.
India said the truce between Israel and the Hamas has eased the humanitarian situation in Gaza and expressed hope that the temporary truce is converted into a permanent ceasefire, which can save precious human lives on both sides and create a conducive environment for talks.
“It is an unfortunate reality that the interlinked and mutually reinforcing challenges faced by the people of the Middle East have not yet been resolved. Political instability, long-festering conflicts, sectarian divides, issue of refugees and terrorism continue to plague the region. The COVID-pandemic has only exacerbated the threats posed by these challenges,” India said.
The statement made India’s permanent representative to the UN, Ambassador T S Tirumurti, will go as part of the official record of the Council.
India said it appreciates the agreement between Fatah and Hamas for holding Parliamentary and Presidential elections and also elections for the Palestinian National Council, which will help fulfill the democratic aspirations of the Palestinian people.
India also welcomed the agreements for normalisation of relations between Israel and the UAE and Bahrain. “India has always supported peace and stability in West Asia, which is our extended neighbourhood,” India said.
Further, India said the commencement of discussions on the disputed border between Israel and Lebanon is a significant development, expressing hope that this will provide an opportunity to resolve the longstanding issue between the two countries.
India highlighted that Palestinian aspirations for a sovereign and independent state are yet to be fulfilled and stressed that New Delhi has been unwavering in its commitment to the Palestinian cause and continues to remain supportive of a peaceful negotiated resolution of the Palestinian issue.
“India has supported the two-state solution as a just and acceptable solution to the conflict. Establishment of a Palestinian State living side-by-side in peace and security with Israel, within mutually agreed borders should be achieved through negotiations directly by the two parties,” India said adding that any stalemate could strengthen the hands of extremists and shut the door to cooperation thereby jeopardising the security, stability and prosperity of the people on both sides and the region.
Accordingly, India urged Israel and Palestine to resume direct negotiations at the earliest and called upon the international community to take concrete steps towards resuming and facilitating these negotiations quickly.
India noted that the decade-long armed conflict in Syria has claimed over 400,000 lives, displaced 6.2 million people internally and compelled another 6.3 million people to seek shelter in neighbouring countries.
“While we are heartened to see return of normalcy to major parts of the country, we are also reminded of the enormous resources that would be required to provide urgent humanitarian aid, rebuild infrastructure, enable return of the refugees and restore a normal and dignified life of all Syrians,” the statement said.
India said in the statement that it is not only contributing to the return of normalcy and rebuilding of Syria, but has also consistently called for a comprehensive and peaceful resolution of the Syrian conflict through a Syrian-led dialogue, taking into account the legitimate aspirations of the people of Syria.
India voiced concern over the security and humanitarian situation in Yemen and said the recent exchange of prisoners by the Government of Yemen and Ansar Allah, who had been detained in connection with the conflict, is a welcome development.
“India hopes that the parties will take more confidence building measures to provide the necessary impetus for the full implementation of the Stockholm Agreement,” the statement read.
India also hopes for peace and stability in Iraq with full respect for Iraq’s sovereignty and territorial integrity.
India noted that in the aftermath of the August blast that brought destruction to vast swathes of Beirut and inflicted heavy loss of lives, India stood in solidarity with Lebanon.
New Delhi sent emergency humanitarian aid of over 58 metric tons to Beirut. “We look forward to the swift formation of a new government that can offer political stability and also tackle the grave socio-economic challenges being faced by the people of Lebanon,” the statement said.
US, India must focus on threat posed by China: Secretary of state Mike Pompeo
NEW DELHI: US secretary of state Mike Pompeo on Tuesday stressed on the need for Washington and New Delhi to work together to counter the threat posed by Beijing to “security and freedom”
Pompeo’s comment came during the crucial 2+2 dialogue between India and the US, which saw the signing of a crucial defence agreement between the two countries.
“There is much more work to do for sure. We have a lot to discuss today: Our cooperation on the pandemic that originated in Wuhan, to confronting the Chinese Communist Party’s threats to security and freedom to promoting peace and stability throughout the region,” Pompeo said during talks with defence minister Rajnath Singh and external affairs minister S Jaishankar. Pompeo was joined by defence secretary Mark Esper.
Esper too focussed on the apparent threat posed by China, specifically in the Indo-Pacific region.
“Our focus now must be on institutionalising and regularising our cooperation to meet the challenges of the day and uphold the principles of a free and open Indo-Pacific well into the future,” Esper said.
The comments assume significance as India is locked in a border standoff with China in eastern Ladakh.
In June this year, 20 Indian soldiers and an unspecified number of PLA soldiers were killed in a clash with Chinese troops in Galwan Valley in eastern Ladakh, hardening the mood in India against China and driving Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government to seek closer military ties with the United States.
In the US, President Donald Trump has made being tough on China a key part of his campaign to secure a second term in next week’s presidential election and Pompeo has been trying to bolster allies to counter China’s growing influence in the Indo-Pacific region.
This month, India invited Australia to join naval drills it holds each year with the United States and Japan, brushing off Chinese concerns that the exercises destabilise the region.
(With inputs from agencies)
US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, Defence Secretary Mark Esper meet NSA Doval
NEW DELHI: US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo and Defence Secretary Mark T Esper on Tuesday held talks with National Security Advisor Ajit Doval, covering key aspects of growing strategic ties between the two countries.
Issues of strategic importance were discussed at the meeting, sources said.
The meeting took place ahead of the third edition of 2+2 ministerial dialogue. Esper and Pompeo arrived here on Monday for the crucial talks aimed at further boosting the defence and security ties between the two countries.
Defence Minister Rajnath Singh and External Affairs Minister S Jaishankar held separate talks with their US counterparts on Monday.
Earlier on Tuesday, both the top US administration officials visited the National War Memorial and paid tributes to India’s fallen heroes.
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